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Actun Tunichil Muknal (ATM)

Alternative Acronyms
Alternative Names
Actun Tunichil Mucnal = Tunichil Muknal
Identification Numbers
Getty ID
Atlas ID
Country, District
Belize, Cayo (BZ-CY)
17.11356 N, -88.86394 E
Number of Inscriptions
After Morley (1948)
After Riese (1976)

Site code ATM given by Corpus of Maya Hieroglyphic Inscriptions (2012; 2016); alternative name ‘Actun Tunichil Mucnal’ according to Corpus of Maya Hieroglyphic Inscriptions (2012; 2016); ‘Tunichil Muknal’ according to Miller (1990).
Location recorded by user Island_Expedition with a handheld Global Positioning System (GPS) in 2008 (accessed July 27, 2015).
Title image by user Jkolecki, CC-BY-SA-3.0


Andres, Christopher R., Christophe Helmke, Shawn G. Morton, Gabriel D. Wrobel, and Jason J. González
2014 Contextualizing the Glyphic Texts of Tipan Chen Uitz, Cayo District, Belize. Latin American Antiquity 25(1): 46–64.
Colas, Pierre R., Ulrich Wölfel, Philip P. Reeder, Katja C. Stengert, and James Webster
2008 Sites and Sinkholes: Archaeological Investigations of Terminal Classic Maya Society on the Northern Vaca Plateau, Belize. Mexicon 30(6): 126–135.
Corpus of Maya Hieroglyphic Inscriptions (CMHI)
2012 Site Codes (updated July 2012). http://peabody.harvard.edu/files/cmhi/CMHI_SiteCodes_FINAL_2012_forWeb.pdf (by Barbara Fash). (accessed July 23, 2015)
2016 Site Codes (updated Februar 2016). https://www.peabody.harvard.edu/files/cmhi/CMHI_SiteCodes_FINAL_2016.pdf (by Barbara Fash). (accessed December 18, 2016)
Gibbs, Sherry A.
1997 Those Laid to Rest in Xibalba: Skeletal Remains from Actun Tunichil Muknal Cave, Belize. In: Belize Valley Archaeological Reconnaissance Project: Progress Report of the 1996 Field Season. Vol. , edited by: Awe, Jaime J., Hohmann, Bobby M., pp. 105-114. . Department of Anthropology, Trent University, Peterborough.
Miller, Tom
1990 Tunichil Muknal. National Speleological Society News 48: 32-40.
Moyes, Holley
2001 The Cave as a Cosmogram: The Use of Gis in an Intrasite Spatial Analysis of the Main Chamber of Actun Tunichil Muknal, a Maya Ceremonial Cave in Western Belize. Unpublished Master Thesis, Florida Atlantic University, Florida.
2005 Cluster Concentrations, Boundary Markers, and Ritual Pathways: A GIS Analysis of Artifact Cluster Patterns at Actun Tunichil Muknal, Belize. In Stone Houses and Earth Lords: Maya Religion in the Cave Context, edited by James E. Brady and Keith M. Prufer, pp. 269–300. University Press of Colorado, Boulder, CO.
Moyes, Holley, Jaime J. Awe, George A. Brook, and James W. Webster
2009 The Ancient Maya Drought Cult: Late Classic Cave Use in Belize. Latin American Antiquity 20(1): 175–206.