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Xunantunich (XUN)

Appellations
Alternative Acronyms
Alternative Names
Benque Viejo = Mount Maloney
Identification Numbers
Getty ID
GeoNames
Atlas ID
Position
Country, District
Belize, Cayo (BZ-CY)
Coordinates
17.089440 N, -89.141670 E
»» UTM / MGRS
Number of Inscriptions
After Morley (1948)
2
After Riese (1976)
Online
Sources
Remarks

Site code XUN given by Corpus of Maya Hieroglyphic Inscriptions (1982:185-187; 1999:187-189; 2012; 2016); cited by Riese (2004), Mathews (2005). Alternative names ‚Benque Viejo‘ and ‚Mount Maloney‘ are cited in CMHI (1978:117).
Location verified with and coordinates retrieved from Google Maps Web Services (accessed August 4, 2015).



References

Ashmore, Wendy
1998 Monumentos políticos: Sitio, asentamiento y paisaje en el área de Xunantunich, Belice. In Anatomía de una civilización: aproximaciones interdisciplinarias a la cultura maya, edited by Andrés Ciudad Ruiz, Y. Fernández Marquínez, María, José M. García Campillo, Iglesias Ponce de León María J., Alfonso Lacadena García-Gallo, and Luis T. Sanz Castro, pp. 161–184. Sociedad Española de Estudios Mayas, Madrid.
2002 Dating The Rise And Fall Of Xunantunich, Belize: A Late And Terminal Classic Lowland Maya Regional Center. Ancient Mesoamerica 13: 41–63.
2010 Antecedents, Allies, Antagonists: Xunantunich and its Neighbors. In Classic Maya Provincial Politics: Xunantunich and Its Hinterlands, edited by Lisa J. LeCount and Jason Yeager, pp. 46–64. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ.
Ashmore, Wendy, and Jeremy A. Sabloff
2002 Spatial Orders in Maya Civic Plans. Latin American Antiquity 13(2): 201–215.
Audet, Carolyn M.
2006 Political Organization in the Belize Valley: Excavations at Baking Pot, Cahal Pech and Xunantunich. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN.
Awe, Jaime J.
2008 Architectural Manifestations of Power and Prestige: Examples from Classic Period Monumental Architecture at Cahal Pech, Xunantunich and Caracol, Belize. In Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology, edited by John Morris, Sherilyne Jones, Jaime J. Awe, and Christophe Helmke, 5:pp. 159–173. Institute of Archaeology, National Institute of Culture and History, Belmopan.
Braswell, Jennifer B.
1998 Archaeological Investigations at Group D, Xunantunich, Belize. Ph.D. Dissertation, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA.
2010 Elite Craft Production of Stone Drills and Slate at Group D, Xunantunich. In Classic Maya Provincial Politics: Xunantunich and Its Hinterlands, edited by Lisa J. LeCount and Jason Yeager, pp. 161–183. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ.
Briggs-Braswell, Jennifer
1996 La producción y consumo en un grupo residencial de la élite, Xunantunich, Belice. In IX Simposio de Investigaciones Arqueológicas en Guatemala, 1995, edited by Juan P. Laporte and Héctor L. Escobedo, pp. 267–283. Museo Nacional de Arqueología y Etnología, Guatemala.
Brown, Kathryn M.
2010 From Sunrise to Sunset: Preliminary Investigations of Preclassic and Postclassic Ritual Activity at Xunantunich, Belize. In Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology, edited by John Morris, Jaime J. Awe, Melissa Badillo, George Thompson, and Sherilyne Jones, 7:pp. 37–44. Institute of Archaeology, National Institute of Culture and History, Belmopan.
2012 A Modern Maya Ritual at Xunantunich, Belize and its Implications for Ancient Maya Ritual Behavior. In Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology, edited by John Morris, Melissa Badillo, and George Thompson, 9:pp. 195–205. Institute of Archaeology, National Institute of Culture and History, Belmopan.
Brown, Kathryn M., Jaime J. Awe, and James Garber
2009 The Preclassic in the Mopan River Valley: Preliminary Investigations at Nohoch Ek and Xunantunich. In Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology, edited by John Morris, George Thompson, Christophe Helmke, Jaime J. Awe, and Sherilyne Jones, 6:pp. 63–71. Institute of Archaeology, National Institute of Culture and History, Belmopan.
Brown, Kathryn M., Jennifer Cochran, Leah McCurdy, and David W. Mixter
2011 Preceramic to Postclassic: A Brief Synthesis of the Occupation History of Group E, Xunantunich. In Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology, edited by John Morris, Jaime J. Awe, Melissa Badillo, and George Thompson, 8:pp. 209–219. Institute of Archaeology, National Institute of Culture and History, Belmopan.
Brown, Kathryn, Leah McCurdy, Whitney Lytle, and Thomas Chapman
2013 Recent Investigations of the Mopan Valley Preclassic Project at Xunantunich, Belize. In Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology, edited by John Morris, Jaime Awe, George Thompson, and Melissa Badillo, 10:pp. 137–146. Institute of Archaeology, National Institute of Culture and History, Belmopan.
Brown, M. Kathryn
2011 Postclassic Veneration at Xunantunich, Belize. Mexicon 33(5): 126–132.
Chapman, Thomas, Catherine Sword, and Kathryn M. Brown
2015 Late to Terminal Classic Household Production at Xunantunich’s Group E. In Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology, edited by John Morris, Melissa Badillo, Sylvia Batty, and George Thompson, 12:pp. 37–43. Institute of Archaeology, National Institute of Culture and History, Belmopan.
Connell, Samuel V.
2010 A Community to be Counted: Chaa Creek and the Emerging Xunantunich Polity. In Classic Maya Provincial Politics: Xunantunich and Its Hinterlands, edited by Lisa J. LeCount and Jason Yeager, pp. 295–314. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ.
Corpus of Maya Hieroglyphic Inscriptions (CMHI)
1978 Corpus of Maya Hieroglyphic Inscriptions, Volume 2, Part 2: Naranjo, Chunhuitz, Xunantunich (by Ian Graham). Cambridge, MA: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University.
1982 Corpus of Maya Hieroglyphic Inscriptions. Volume 3, Part 3: Yaxchilan (by Ian Graham). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University.
1999 Corpus of Maya Hieroglyphic Inscriptions. Volume 6, Part 3: Tonina (by Ian Graham and Peter Mathews). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University.
2012 Site Codes (updated July 2012). http://peabody.harvard.edu/files/cmhi/CMHI_SiteCodes_FINAL_2012_forWeb.pdf (by Barbara Fash). (accessed July 23, 2015)
2016 Site Codes (updated Februar 2016). https://www.peabody.harvard.edu/files/cmhi/CMHI_SiteCodes_FINAL_2016.pdf (by Barbara Fash). (accessed December 23, 2016)
Dunning, Nicholas P.
1992 Lords of the Hills: Ancient Maya Settlement in the Puuc Region, Yucatán, Mexico. Monographs in World Archaeology 15. Prehistory Press, Madison, WI.
Fields, Virginia M.
2004 The Royal Charter at Xunantunich. In The Ancient Maya of the Belize Valley: Half a Century of Archaeological Research, edited by James F. Garber, pp. 180–190. Maya Studies. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL.
Freiwald, Carolyn
2011 Patterns of Population Movement at Xunantunich, Cahal Pech, and Baking Pot during the Late and Terminal Classic (AD 600-900). In Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology, edited by John Morris, Jaime J. Awe, Melissa Badillo, and George Thompson, 8:pp. 89–100. Institute of Archaeology, National Institute of Culture and History, Belmopan.
Freiwald, Carolyn, Jason Yaeger, Jaime Awe, and Jennifer Piehl
2014 Isotopic Insights into Mortuary Treatment and Origin at Xunantunich, Belize. In The Bioarchaeology of Space and Place, edited by Gabriel D. Wrobel, pp. 107–139. Springer, New York, NY.
Golden, Charles, and Andrew K. Scherer
2012 Ancient Maya Territorial Organisation of Central Belize: Confluence of Archaeological and Epigraphic Data. In Maya Political Relations and Strategies: Proceedings of the 14th European Maya Conference, edited by Christophe Helmke and Jaime J. Awe, pp. 57–88. Contributions in New World Archaeology 4. Kraków.
Helmke, Christophe, and Jaime J. Awe
2008 Organización territorial de los antiguos mayas de Belice Central: confluencia de datos arqueológicos y epigráficos. Mayab 20: 65–91.
2016 Sharper than a Serpent’s Tooth: A Tale of the Snake-head Dynasty as Recounted on Xunantunich Panel 4. The PARI Journal 17(2): 1–22.
Helmke, Christophe G.B.
2010 The Carved Monuments and Inscriptions of Xunantunich. In Classic Maya Provincial Politics: Xunantunich and Its Hinterlands, edited by Lisa J. LeCount and Jason Yeager, pp. 97–121. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ.
Helmke, Christophe G. B., and Jaime J. Awe
2016 Death Becomes Her: An Analysis of Panel 3, Xunantunich, Belize. The PARI Journal 16(4): 1–14.
Ical., Dalila
2016 Xunantunich Tells More about her Past in Archaeological Find. Breaking Belize News. June 15.
Jamison, Thomas R.
2010 Monumental Building Programs and Changing Political Strategies at Xunantunich. In Classic Maya Provincial Politics: Xunantunich and Its Hinterlands, edited by Lisa J. LeCount and Jason Yeager, pp. 122–144. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ.
Keller, Angela H.
2006 Roads to the Center: The Design, Use, and Meaning of the Roads of Xunantunich, Belize. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.
2010 The Social Construction of Roads at Xunantunich, from Design to Abandonment. In Classic Maya Provincial Politics: Xunantunich and Its Hinterlands, edited by Lisa J. LeCount and Jason Yeager, pp. 184–208. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ.
LeCount, Lisa J.
1999 Polychrome Pottery and Political Strategies in Late and Terminal Classic Lowland Maya Society. Latin American Antiquity 10(3): 239–258.
2010 Mount Maloney People? Domestic Pots, Everyday Practice, and the Social Formation of the Xunantunich Polity. In Classic Maya Provincial Politics: Xunantunich and Its Hinterlands, edited by Lisa J. LeCount and Jason Yeager, pp. 209–230. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ.
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2010 Classic Maya Provincial Politics: Xunantunich and Its Hinterlands. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ.
LeCount, Lisa J., and Jason Yeager
2010a A Brief Description of Xunantunich. In Classic Maya Provincial Politics: Xunantunich and Its Hinterlands, edited by Lisa J. LeCount and Jason Yeager, pp. 67–78. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ.
2010b Provincial Politics and Current Models of the Maya State. In Classic Maya Provincial Politics: Xunantunich and Its Hinterlands, edited by Lisa J. LeCount and Jason Yeager, pp. 20–45. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ.
2010c Conclusions: Placing Xunantunich and its Hinterland Settlements in Perspective. In Classic Maya Provincial Politics: Xunantunich and Its Hinterlands, edited by Lisa J. LeCount and Jason Yeager, pp. 337–369. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ.
Lentz, David L., Jasón Yaeger, Cynthia Robin, and Wendy Ashmore
2005 Pine, Prestige and Politics of the Late Classic Maya at Xunantunich, Belize. Antiquity 79(305): 573–585.
Leventhal, Richard M.
2010 Changing Places: The Castillo and the Structure of Power at Xunantunich. In Classic Maya Provincial Politics: Xunantunich and Its Hinterlands, edited by Lisa J. LeCount and Jason Yeager, pp. 79–96. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ.
Leventhal, Richard M., and Wendy Ashmore
2004 Xunantunich in a Belize Valley Context. In The Ancient Maya of the Belize Valley: Half a Century of Archaeological Research, edited by James F. Garber, pp. 168–179. Maya Studies. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL.
Leventhal, Richard M., Wendy Ashmore, Lisa J. LeCount, and Jason Yaeger
2010 The Xunantunich Archaeological Project, 1991-1997. In Classic Maya Provincial Politics: Xunantunich and Its Hinterlands, edited by Lisa J. LeCount and Jason Yeager, pp. 1–19. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ.
López Varela, Sandra L., and Antonia E. Foias
2005 Geographies of Power: Understanding the Nature of Terminal Classic Pottery in the Maya Lowlands. BAR International Series 1447. Archaeopress, Oxford.
MacKie, Euan W.
1961 New Light on the End of Classic Maya Culture at Benque Viejo, British Honduras. American Antiquity 27(2): 216–224.
Maler, Teobert
1908 Explorations in the Department of Peten, Guatemala, and Adjacent Region. Vol. 3. Memoirs of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University 4. Peabody Museum, Cambridge, MA.
Mathews, Peter
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McCurdy, Leah, Whitney Lytle, and Kathryn M. Brown
2014 New Investigations of Xunantunich’s Site Core. In Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology, edited by John Morris, Melissa Badillo, Jaime Awe, and George Thompson, 11:pp. 213–221. Institute of Archaeology, National Institute of Culture and History, Belmopan.
McCurdy, Leah, Jason Yaeger, and Kathryn M. Brown
2011 An Architectural History of Plaza A-III at Xunantunich. In Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology, edited by John Morris, Jaime J. Awe, Melissa Badillo, and George Thompson, 8:pp. 221–232. Institute of Archaeology, National Institute of Culture and History, Belmopan.
Morley, Sylvanus G.
1937 The Inscriptions of Petén. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication 437. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, D.C.
Neff, L. Theodore
2008 A Study of Agricultural Intensification: Ancient Maya Agricultural Terracing in the Xunantunich Hinterland, Belize, Central America. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.
2010 Population, Intensive Agriculture, Labor Value, and Elite-Commoner Political Power Relations in the Xunantunich Hinterlands. In Classic Maya Provincial Politics: Xunantunich and Its Hinterlands, edited by Lisa J. LeCount and Jason Yeager, pp. 250–271. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ.
Riese, Berthold
2004 Abkürzungen für Maya-Ruinenorte mit Inschriften. Wayeb Notes 8. http://www.wayeb.org/notes/wayeb_notes0008.pdf (accessed July 23, 2015)
Robin, Cynthia
1999 Towards an Archaeology of Everyday Life: Maya Farmers of Chan Noohol and Dos Chombitos Cik’in, Belize. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.
Robin, Cynthia, Jason Yaeger, and Wendy Ashmore
2010 Living in the Hinterlands of a Provincial Polity. In Classic Maya Provincial Politics: Xunantunich and Its Hinterlands, edited by Lisa J. LeCount and Jason Yeager, pp. 315–333. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ.
Satterthwaite, Linton
1950 Plastic Art on a Maya Palace. Archaeology 3(4): 215–222.
Schortman, Edward
2010 Provincial Politics at Xunantunich: Power, Differentiation, and Identity in a Classic-Period Maya Realm. In Classic Maya Provincial Politics: Xunantunich and Its Hinterlands, edited by Lisa J. LeCount and Jason Yeager, pp. 370–383. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ.
Sunahara, Kay S.
2009 Ancient Maya Ceramic Economy in the Belize River Valley Region: Petrographic Analyses. BAR International Series 2018. Archaeopress, Oxford.
Taschek, Jennifer T., and Joseph W. Ball
2004 Buenavista del Cayo, Cahal Pech, and Xunantunich: Three Centers, Three Histories, One Central Place. In The Ancient Maya of the Belize Valley: Half a Century of Archaeological Research, edited by James F. Garber, pp. 191–206. Maya Studies. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL.
VandenBosch, Jon C., Lisa J. LeCount, and Jason Yaeger
2010 Integration and Interdependence: The Domestic Chipped-Stone Economy of the Xunantunich Polity. In Classic Maya Provincial Politics: Xunantunich and Its Hinterlands, edited by Lisa J. LeCount and Jason Yeager, pp. 272–294. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ.
Yaeger, Jason
1997 Excavaciones en San Lorenzo, Belice, una aldea de la región de Xunantunich. In X Simposio de Investigaciones Arqueológicas en Guatemala, 1996, edited by Juan P. Laporte and Héctor L. Escobedo, pp. 439–451. Museo Nacional de Arqueología y Etnología, Guatemala.
2000 Changing patterns of social organization: The Late and Terminal Classic communities at San Lorenzo, Cayo District, Belize. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.
2005 Revisiting the Xunantunich Palace: The 2003 Excavations. Electronic Document. Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies (FAMSI).
2006 La historia política de Xunantunich, Belice, vista desde el palacio. In XIX Simposio de Investigaciones Arqueológicas en Guatemala, 2005, edited by Juan P. Laporte, Bárbara Arroyo, and Héctor E. Mejía, pp. 371–382. Museo Nacional de Arqueología y Etnología, Guatemala.
2010a Shifting Political Dynamics as Seen from the Xunantunich Palace. In Classic Maya Provincial Politics: Xunantunich and Its Hinterlands, edited by Lisa J. LeCount and Jason Yeager, pp. 145–160. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ.
2010b Landscapes of the Xunantunich Hinterlands. In Classic Maya Provincial Politics: Xunantunich and Its Hinterlands, edited by Lisa J. LeCount and Jason Yeager, pp. 233–249. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ.